(b. 624, Wenshui [now in Shanxi province], China—d. Dec. 16, 705, Luoyang)
Wuhou is the posthumous name (shi) of the woman who rose from concubinage to become empress of China during the Tang dynasty (618–907). She ruled effectively for many years, the last 15 (690–705) in her own name. During her reign, Tang rule was consolidated, and the empire was uniﬁed.
Wu Zhao, also called Wu Zetian, entered the palace of the Tang emperor Taizong (ruled 626–649) in 638, at age 14, as a junior concubine. By that time, the Tang dynasty had recently reunited China, largely through the efforts of Taizong. Little is known of Wu’s life as a concubine of Taizong, but, on his death in 649, she is traditionally said to have already entered into intimate relations with his heir, the Gaozong emperor.
Relegated to a Buddhist convent on the death of Taizong, as custom required, the future empress Wuhou was visited there by the new emperor, who had her brought back to the palace to be his own favourite concubine. She ﬁrst eliminated her female rivals within the palace—the existing empress and leading concubines—and in 655 gained the position of empress for herself, eventually bearing Gaozong four sons and one daughter.
Wuhou used her authority to bring about the fall of the elder statesmen, all of whom had served Taizong and still exercised great inﬂuence over the government. These men opposed her elevation to the position of empress, mainly because, although she was the daughter of a relatively senior ofﬁcer, her family was not one of the great aristocratic clans. They also objected to the nature of her relationship with Gaozong, on the grounds that as she had been a concubine of Taizong, it was incestuous. By 660 the empress had triumphed over all opponents, who had been dismissed, exiled, and, in many instances, ﬁnally executed. Even the emperor’s uncle, the head of the great family of the Changsun, of imperial descent, was hounded to death, and his relatives were exiled or ruined.
Virtually supreme power was now exercised by the Wuhou empress in the name of the sickly Gaozong, who was often too ill to attend to state affairs for long periods. The emperor, who was weak in character, relied on her entirely, and for the last 23 years of his life, the empress was the real ruler of China. She continued to eliminate potential rivals, even when these were her own relatives, but she governed the empire with great efﬁciency, employing able men who clearly felt loyalty to her and stood by her when she was challenged. Her great ability as an adminis-trator, her courage, decisive character, and readiness to use ruthless means against any opponent, however highly placed, won her the respect, if not the love, of the court.
In the years between 655 and 675, the Tang empire conquered Korea under military leaders who were picked and promoted by the empress. When Gaozong died in 683, he was succeeded by his son Li Xian (by Wuhou), known as the Zhongzong emperor. The new emperor had been married to a woman of the Wei family, who now sought to put herself in the same position of authority as that of Wuhou, for Zhongzong was as weak and incompetent as his father. After one month Wuhou deposed her son, exiled him, and installed as emperor her second son, Li Dan (the Ruizong emperor), whose authority was purely nominal. A revolt was raised by Tang loyalists and ambitious young ofﬁcials in the south. It was crushed within weeks with the loyal cooperation of the main armies of the throne. This demonstration of the support she commanded in the public service made the position of the empress unshakable.
Six years later, in 690, at age 65, the empress usurped the throne itself. Accepted without revolt, she ruled for 15 years. During that period the question of the succession began to assume great urgency. Her own nephews of the Wu family had hoped that as she had already changed the name of the dynasty to Zhou, she would also displace the Tang heirs of the Li family and leave the throne to one of the Wu nephews. Neither of them nor their sons was popular or unusually capable; on the other hand, Wuhou’s own sons, the two former emperors Zhongzong and Ruizong, had little support and less ability.
But, even among her loyal supporters, there was a growing hope that the Tang family of Li would not be discarded. In 698 the empress decided to accede to these views; the exiled Zhongzong was recalled to court and made crown prince. The empress showed her remarkable quality in this deci-sion; she did not place her own family in the line of succession or designate one of her nephews as her heir. She seems to have had no ambition on behalf of her own family, only a determination to retain power for herself to the end.
In the last years of her life, from 699, the empress gave her favour to the Zhang brothers, artistic but depraved courtiers who engaged her affection by elaborate entertain-ments and skillful ﬂattery. They were intensely resented by the court and senior ofﬁcials, many of whom had the temerity—and courage—to warn the empress of their pernicious activity.
She did not heed these warnings and, as she gradually fell into ill health, depended increasingly on the care of the Zhang brothers. In February 705 a conspiracy formed among the leading ministers and gen-erals, who seized the palace, executed the Zhang brothers, and compelled the empress, old and ill, to yield power to Zhongzong, who reigned until 710. She retired to another palace and died there in December of that year.
The Wuhou empress was a highly competent ruler, using men of her own choice, regardless of their social standing. Although her motives were to secure her own authority, the consequences of her policies were to be of great historical importance. The transformation of Chinese society in the Tang period from one dominated by a military and political aristocracy to one governed by a scholarly bureaucracy drawn from the gentry was promoted by her policy.
The signiﬁcance of this aspect of her rule was long obscured by the preju-dice of Chinese historians against an usurping empress and her many acts of cruelty toward opponents. She established the new uniﬁed empire on a lasting basis and brought about needed social changes that stabilized the dynasty and ush-ered in one of the most fruitful ages of Chinese civilization.