(b. c. 978, Kyōto, Japan—d. c. 1014, Kyōto)
The court lady known as Murasaki Shikibu was the author of the Genji monogatari (The Tale of Genji), generally considered the greatest work of Japanese literature and thought to be the world’s oldest full novel.
The author’s real name is unknown; it is conjectured that she acquired the sobriquet of Murasaki from the name of the heroine of her novel, and the name Shikibu reﬂects her father’s position at the Bureau of Rites.
She was born into a lesser branch of the noble and highly inﬂuential Fujiwara family and was well educated, having learned Chinese (generally the exclusive sphere of males). She married a much older distant cousin, Fujiwara Nobutaka, and bore him a daughter, but after two years of marriage he died.
Some critics believe that she wrote the entire Tale of Genji between 1001 (the year her husband died) and 1005, the year in which she was summoned to serve at court (for reasons unknown).
It is more likely that the composition of her extremely long and complex novel extended over a much greater period; her new position within what was then a leading literary centre likely enabled her to produce a story that was not ﬁnished until about 1010.
In any case this work is the main source of knowledge about her life. It possesses considerable interest for the delightful glimpses it affords of life at the court of the empress Jōtō mon’in, whom Murasaki Shikibu served.
The Tale of Genji captures the image of a unique society of ultrareﬁned and elegant aristocrats, whose indispensable accomplishments were skill in poetry, music, calligraphy, and courtship.
Much of it is concerned with the loves of Prince Genji and the different women in his life, all of whom are exquisitely delineated. Although the novel does not contain scenes of powerful action, it is permeated with a sensitivity to human emotions and to the beauties of nature hardly paralleled elsewhere.
The tone of the novel darkens as it progresses, indicating perhaps a deepening of Murasaki Shikibu’s Buddhist conviction of the vanity of the world. Some, however, believe that its last 14 chapters were written by another author.
Arthur Waley was the ﬁrst to translate The Tale of Genji into English (6 vol., 1925–33). Waley’s translation is beautiful and inspiring, a classic of English literature, but also very free.
Edward Seidensticker’s translation (1976) is true to the original in both content and tone, but its notes and reader aids are sparse, unlike the translation published by Royall Tyler in 2001. Murasaki Shikibu’s diary is included in Diaries of Court Ladies of Old Japan (1935), translated by Annie Shepley Ōmori and Kōchi Doi.