(baptized Aug. 27, 1910, Skopje, Macedonia, Ottoman Empire [now in Republic of Macedonia]—d. Sept. 5, 1997, Calcutta [Kolkata], India; beatiﬁed Oct. 19, 2003)
Mother Teresa of Calcutta was the founder of the Order of the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic congregation of women dedicated to the poor, particularly to the destitute of India. She was the recipient of numerous honours, including the 1979 Nobel Prize for Peace.
Mother Teresa was born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, the daughter of an ethnic Albanian grocer. In 1928 she went to Ireland to join the Sisters of Loretto at the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary and sailed only six weeks later to India as a teacher. She taught for 17 years at the order’s school in Calcutta (Kolkata).
In 1946 Sister Teresa experienced her “call within a call,” which she considered divine inspiration to devote herself to caring for the sick and poor. She then moved into the slums she had observed while teaching. Municipal authorities, upon her petition, gave her a pilgrim hostel, near the sacred temple of Kali, where she founded her order in 1948.
Sympathetic companions soon ﬂocked to her aid. Dispensaries and outdoor schools were organized. Mother Teresa adopted Indian citizenship, and her Indian nuns all donned the sari as their habit. In 1950 her order received canonical sanction from Pope Pius XII, and in 1965 it became a pontiﬁcal congregation (subject only to the pope).
In 1952 she established Nirmal Hriday (“Place for the Pure of Heart”), a hospice where the terminally ill could die with dignity. Her order also opened numerous centres serving the blind, the aged, and the disabled. Under Mother Teresa’s guidance, the Missionaries of Charity built a leper colony, called Shanti Nagar (“Town of Peace”), near Asansol, India.
In 1963 the Indian government awarded Mother Teresa the title Padmashri (“Lord of the Lotus”) for her services to the people of India. In 1964, on his trip to India, Pope Paul VI gave her his ceremonial limousine, which she immedi-ately rafﬂed to help ﬁnance her leper colony. In 1968 she was summoned to Rome to found a home there, staffed primarily with Indian nuns.
In recognition of her apostolate, she was honoured on Jan. 6, 1971, by Pope Paul, who awarded her the ﬁrst Pope John XXIII Peace Prize. In 1979 she received the Nobel Peace Prize for her humanitarian work.
In her later years Mother Teresa spoke out against divorce, contraception, and abortion. She also suffered ill health and had a heart attack in 1989. In 1990 she resigned as head of the order but was returned to ofﬁce by a near unanimous vote—the lone dissenting voice was her own.
A worsening heart condition forced her retirement, and the order chose the Indian-born Sister Nirmala as her suc-cessor in 1997. At the time of Mother Teresa’s death, her order included hundreds of centres in more than 90 coun-tries with some 4,000 nuns and hundreds of thousands of lay workers.
Within two years of Mother Teresa’s death, the process to declare her a saint was begun, and Pope John Paul II issued a special dispensation to expedite the process of canonization. She was beatiﬁed on Oct. 19, 2003, reaching the ranks of the blessed in the shortest time in the history of the church.
Although Mother Teresa displayed cheerfulness and a deep commitment to God in her daily work, her letters (which were collected and published in 2007) indicate that she did not feel God’s presence in her soul during the last 50 years of her life.
The letters reveal the suffering she endured and her feeling that Jesus had abandoned her at the start of her mission. Continuing to experience a spiritual darkness, she came to believe that she was sharing in Christ’s Passion, particularly the moment in which Christ asks, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” Despite this hardship, Mother Teresa integrated the feel-ing of absence into her daily religious life and remained committed to her faith and her work for Christ.