CHRISTINE DE PISAN
(b. 1364, Venice [Italy]—d. c. 1430)
One of the earliest feminists, Christine de Pisan was a proliﬁc and versatile French poet and author whose diverse writings include numerous poems of courtly love, a biography of Charles V of France, and several works championing women.
Christine’s Italian father was astrologer to Charles V, and she spent a pleasant, studious childhood at the French court. At 15 she married Estienne de Castel, who became court secretary. Widowed after 10 years of mar-riage, she took up writing in order to support herself and her three young children.
Her ﬁrst poems were ballades of lost love written to the memory of her husband. These verses met with success, and she continued writing bal-lads, rondeaux, lays, and complaints in which she expressed her feelings with grace and sincerity.
Among her patrons were Louis I, the duke d’Orléans, the duke de Berry, Philip II the Bold of Burgundy, Queen Isabella of Bavaria, and, in England, the 4th earl of Salisbury.
In all, she wrote 10 volumes in verse, including L’Épistre au Dieu d’amours (1399; “Letter to the God of Loves”), in which she defended women against the satire of Jean de Meun in the Roman de la rose.
Christine’s prose works include Le Livre de la cité des dames (1405; The Book of the City of Ladies), in which she wrote of women known for their heroism and virtue, and Le Livre des trois vertus (1405; “Book of Three Virtues”), a sequel comprising a classiﬁcation of women’s roles in medieval society and a collection of moral instructions for women in the various social spheres.
The story of her life, L’Avision de Christine (1405), told in an allegorical manner, was a reply to her detractors. At the request of the regent, Philip the Bold of Burgundy, Christine wrote the life of the deceased king.
Charles—Le Livre des fais et bonnes meurs du sage roy Charles V (1404; “Book of the Deeds and Good Morals of the Wise King Charles V”), a ﬁrsthand picture of Charles V and his court. Her eight additional prose works reveal her remarkable breadth of knowledge.
After the disastrous Battle of Agincourt in 1415, she retired to a convent. Her last work, Le Ditié de Jehanne d’Arc (written in 1429), is a lyrical, joyous outburst inspired by the early victories of Joan of Arc; it is the only such French-language work written during Joan’s lifetime.